ADHA Access January 2012 : Page 20
Health Literacy: Why Is It Important? By Su-yan L. Barrow, RDH, MA, MPH What Is Health Literacy? he relationship between poor literacy skills and health status is now well recognized and better understood. Interest in this relationship has led to the emergence of the concept of health literacy. 1 Health literacy is generally agreed upon as the means to ¿QG�f;XQGHUVWDQG�f;DQDO\]HDQGXVHLQIRUPDWLRQWRPDNHEHWWHU decisions about health and to ultimately reduce inequities in health. 2 7KHGH¿QLWLRQVXVHGE\+HDOWK\3HRSOH  3 and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 4 are similar: ‘‘The degree to ZKLFKLQGLYLGXDOVKDYHWKHFDSDFLW\WRREWDLQ�f;SURFHVVDQG understand basic health information and services needed to PDNHDSSURSULDWHKHDOWKGHFLVLRQV¶¶7KHVHGH¿QLWLRQVSUHVHQW health literacy as a set of individual capacities that allow the person to acquire and use new information. 5 Health literacy LVQRWGHWHUPLQHGVROHO\E\DQLQGLYLGXDO¶VFDSDFLW\WRUHDG�f; XQGHUVWDQG�f;SURFHVVDQGDFWRQKHDOWKLQIRUPDWLRQ 6 It is the product of individuals’ capacities and the demands the health LQIRUPDWLRQSODFHVRQLQGLYLGXDOVWRGHFRGH�f;LQWHUSUHWDQG DVVLPLODWHKHDOWKPHVVDJHV)XUWKHUPRUH�f;KHDOWKOLWHUDF\LV QRWFRQVWDQW�f;EXWLVDG\QDPLFVWDWHWKDWPD\FKDQJHZLWK the situation. 6  T ■ Signs of Limited Health Literacy 28   3DWLHQWVPD\DVNWRWDNHSDSHUZRUNKRPHWR complete.   3DWLHQWVPD\VD\WKDWWKH\IRUJRWWKHLUJODVVHVDW home.   3DWLHQWVPD\DOZD\VEULQJDIULHQGRUIDPLO\ member to appointments to complete paperwork. DUHROGHUDGXOWV�f;UDFLDODQGHWKQLFPLQRULWLHV�f;SHRSOHZLWKOHVV WKDQDKLJKVFKRROGHJUHHRU*('FHUWL¿FDWH�f;SHRSOHZLWKORZ LQFRPHOHYHOV�f;QRQ QDWLYHVSHDNHUVRI(QJOLVK�f;DQGSHRSOH with compromised health status. 8 Why Is Health Literacy Important for Dental Patients? Limited health literacy has been associated with a range RIDGYHUVHKHDOWKRXWFRPHV�f;LQFOXGLQJGHFUHDVHGXVHRI SUHYHQWLYHKHDOWKVHUYLFHV�f;SRRUHUGLVHDVH VSHFL¿FRXWFRPHV IRUFHUWDLQFKURQLFFRQGLWLRQV�f;DQGLQFUHDVHGULVNRIKRVSLWDO ization and mortality. 9 Literacy may affect the cost of health care because of its effect on the level and/or effectiveness of health care services used and the cost of interventions. 10 /RZOLWHUDF\LVDSHUYDVLYHDQGXQGHU UHFRJQL]HGSUREOHP LQKHDOWKFDUH$IIHFWHGSDWLHQWVPD\KDYHGLI¿FXOW\UHDG LQJDQGXQGHUVWDQGLQJGLVFKDUJHLQVWUXFWLRQV�f;PHGLFDWLRQ ODEHOV�f;SDWLHQWHGXFDWLRQPDWHULDOV�f;FRQVHQWIRUPVRUKHDOWK surveys. 11 Health information is an important resource for patients trying to understand and engage in the management of their health conditions. 12 3HRSOHW\SLFDOO\LQLWLDWHPHGLFDOFDUH ZKHQWKH\KDYHDPHGLFDOQHHG+RZHYHU�f;SHRSOHZLWKOLPLWHG health literacy may delay seeking care because they do not understand prevention and/or know the signs and symptoms of disease that should motivate people to action. 13 The health literacy literature has documented that patients with limited literacy may avoid health care settings for fear of being HPEDUUDVVHG�f; 14 which results in decreased health care utiliza tion. As much of routine prevention depends on patients FRPLQJLQIRUSULPDU\FDUH�f;LWLVQRWVXUSULVLQJWKDWSHRSOH with limited health literacy receive less primary prevention. 15 Literacy skills may also have a strong impact on a patient’s awareness of the importance of oral health and its relation to JHQHUDOKHDOWKDQGNQRZOHGJHRIVSHFL¿FKHDOWK SURPRWLQJ behaviors. 16 Health Literacy and the General Population $FFRUGLQJWRWKH1DWLRQDO$VVHVVPHQWRI$GXOW/LWHUDF\�f; RQO\SHUFHQWRIDGXOWVKDYH³SUR¿FLHQW´KHDOWKOLWHUDF\ 7KHUHIRUH�f;DSSUR[LPDWHO\QLQHRXWRI DGXOWVPD\ODFNWKH skills needed to manage their health and prevent disease. Fourteen percent of adults (30 million people) have “below EDVLF´KHDOWKOLWHUDF\7KHVHDGXOWVZHUHPRUHOLNHO\WRUHSRUW their health as poor (42 percent) and are more likely to lack KHDOWKLQVXUDQFH�b;b;SHUFHQW�c;WKDQDGXOWVZLWKSUR¿FLHQW health literacy. 7 The individuals who risk low health literacy Evidence indicating that clinicians tend to overestimate their patients’ reading abilities argues for the use of an assessment tool. Health Literacy Assessment +LVWRULFDOO\�f;WKHDYHUDJHUHDGLQJOHYHORISDWLHQWPDWHULDOV UHODWHGWRKHDOWKFDUHKDVEHHQWKWRWKJUDGH�f;EXWWKH DYHUDJHSHUVRQ¶VUHDGLQJOHYHOLVPXFKORZHU$GGLWLRQDOO\�f; even patients who read at the college level have been found WRSUHIHUPHGLFDOLQIRUPDWLRQZULWWHQDWWKHVHYHQWK JUDGH level. 17 )RUZULWWHQHGXFDWLRQDOPDWHULDOWREHHIIHFWLYH�f;WKH target audience must be able to read and understand it. Health care providers must evaluate the readability of writ ten materials. Several approaches have been developed to PHDVXUH³UHDGDELOLW\´5HDGDELOLW\DVVHVVPHQWRIWHQXVHVIRU 20 JAN 2012 access
Su-yan L. Barrow, RDH, MA, MPH
Health Literacy: Why Is It Important?<br /> <br /> What Is Health Literacy?<br /> <br /> The relationship between poor literacy skills and health status is now well recognized and better understood. Interest in this relationship has led to the emergence of the concept of health literacy.1<br /> <br /> Health literacy is generally agreed upon as the means to Find, understand, analyze and use information to make better decisions about health and to ultimately reduce inequities in health.2The definitions used by healthy people 2010 3 and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)4 are similar: ‘‘The degree to Which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to Make appropriate health decisions." These definitions present health literacy as a set of individual capacities that allow the person to acquire and use new information.5 Health literacy Is not determined solely by an individual's capacity to read, undermined, process and act on health information.6 It is the product of individuals’ capacities and the demands the health Information places on individuals to decode, interpret and assimilate health messages. Furthermore, health literacy is not constant, but is a dynamic state that may change with the situation.6<br /> <br /> Health Literacy and the General Population<br /> <br /> According to the national assessment of adult literacy, only 12 percent of adults have "proficient health literacy. Therefore, approximately nine out of 10 adults may lack the skills needed to manage their health and prevent disease.<br /> Fourteen percent of adults (30 million people) have “below Basic" health literacy. These adults were more likely to report their health as poor (42 percent) and are more likely to lack health insurance (28 percent) than adults with proficient health literacy.7 The individuals who risk low health literacy <br /> Are older adults, racial and ethnic minorities, people with than a high school degree or GED certificate, people with low income levels, non-native speakers of English, and people with compromised health status.8<br /> <br /> Why Is Health Literacy Important for Dental Patients?<br /> <br /> Limited health literacy has been associated with a range Of adverse health outcomes, including decreased use of preventive health services, poorer disease-specific outcomes for certain chronic conditions, and increased risk of hospitalization and mortality.9 Literacy may affect the cost of health care because of its effect on the level and/or effectiveness of health care services used and the cost of interventions.10 Low literacy is a pervasive and under-recognized problem in health care. Affected patients may have difficulty reading and understanding discharge instructions, medication labels, patient education materials, consent forms or health surveys.11<br /> <br /> Health information is an important resource for patients trying to understand and engage in the management of their health conditions.12People typically initiate medical care when they have a medical need. However, people with limited health literacy may delay seeking care because they do not understand prevention and/or know the signs and symptoms of disease that should motivate people to action.13 The health literacy literature has documented that patients with limited literacy may avoid health care settings for fear of being Embarrassed,14 which results in decreased health care utilization. As much of routine prevention depends on patients Coming in for primary care, it is not surprising that pepple with limited health literacy receive less primary prevention.15 Literacy skills may also have a strong impact on a patient’s awareness of the importance of oral health and its relation to General health and knowledge of specific health-promoting behaviors.16<br /> <br /> Health Literacy Assessment<br /> <br /> Historically, the average reading level of patient materials related to health care has been 11th to 14th grade, but the average person's reading level is much lower. Additionally, even patients who read at the college level have been found To prefer medical information written at the seventh-grade level.17 for written educational material to be effective, the target audience must be able to read and understand it.Health care providers must evaluate the readability of written materials. Several approaches have been developed to Measure "readability." Readability assessment often uses for mulas such as the Fry graph,18 the Flesch-Kincaid formula (Microscoft Word®) or others that take into account length of sentences and the number of syllables in the words.10<br /> <br /> Evidence indicating that clinicians tend to overestimate their patients’ reading abilities argues for the use of an assessment tool.19 Several instruments are currently available to measure an individual’s literacy level. The instruments used in the health care setting have measured the patient’s ability to read and, in some cases, to use numbers. Two of these instruments that focus on health are the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM);20 TOHFLA is the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults;21 and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), a bilingual (English and Spanish) screening tool that identifies patients at risk for low health literacy. The test result provides information about the patient that will allow providers to appropriately adapt their communication practices in an effort to achieve better health outcomes.22 Another health literacy tool is the Adult Basic Learning Examination (ABLE), which can be used to evaluate comprehension of written text (prose literacy), capacity to use and understand tables and forms (document literacy), and arithmetic skills (numeracy).23<br /> <br /> Literacy assessment should therefore go hand-in-hand with assessments of culture and language24 to better meet the needs of our patients. Health care professionals are encouraged to learn about patients’ health beliefs by asking, for example, the Kleinman Questions: 25 “What do you think has caused the illness?” “What do you think the illness does?” “How does it work?” “What kind of treatment do you think you should receive?” “What are the most important results you hope you receive from this treatment?” It is through this cross-cultural exploration that the clinician and patient reach agreement about the appropriate course of action.24 Clinicians may choose to adopt less formal assessment strategies, such as asking a single question; for Example,"how confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself"26 watching out for low-literacy red flags, such as when a patientsays, “I forgot my reading glasses,”27 and letting patients use their own words to describe their culture and language rather than using preestablished categories.28<br /> <br /> How Can Health Professionals Assist Their Patients?<br /> <br /> Too often, there exists a chasm between what professionals know and what consumers and patients understand. Basic literacy is fundamental to the success of each interaction between health care professionals and patients—every prescription, every treatment and every recovery. Basic health literacy is fundamental to putting sound public health guidance into practice and helping people follow recommendations.29<br /> <br /> Providers tend to be unaware of their patients’ limited literacy.30 Clinicians need information about the level of oral and written English Proficiency to inform their decisions about using interpreter services and translated materials.24 However, a sensitive approach must be applied during the collection of the patient’s literacy, cultural and language data, in order to increase the patient’s comfort level and Minimize any embarrassment due to limited English proficiency of literacy.31 To do so, the health care professional will need to learn How to communicate in plain terms to confirm important items in a patient’s history and evaluate patient comprehension of important action items.32 An option is not to screen patients but to take “universal precautions” to avoid miscommunication,6,33 as it is better to assume That all patients experience some degree of difficulty in understanding health information.<br /> <br /> Several strategies to assist in achieving clear communication with our patients involve limiting the number of messages delivered At one time; using simplified, jargon-free language; and using the teach-back or teach-to-goal method of having patients explain what they have been told and repeating the information until it is clear the patient understands. Although these approaches serve culturally Diverse and limited English proficiency patients as well, the emphasis is on improving the way clinicians give instructions. Health care Organizations need to use the full array of health care professionals to reinforce and augment clinician-patient communications.24 The Health care team should include receptionists as the first people seenby patients; receptionists can allay confusion, fear, or uncertainty, as well as assist in completing paperwork and arrange for interpreters.34 In addition, receptionists can address any concerns after the clinical treatment, which can help ensure the patient understands the posttreatment self-care instructions.<br /> <br /> For health care professionals to be prepared with skills required to assist their patients, it is essential that they receive health literacy training. Training could include how to collect assessment data, when and how to use interpreters, and how to engage in cross-cultural and clear communication.24 Without better tools and provider training, Screening alone is unlikely to be beneficial.6<br /> <br /> Conclusion<br /> <br /> Effective patient-provider interactions are fundamental to achieving successful clinical outcomes. Assuring that interactions are effective with diverse patients requires that clinicians learn about their patients’ health literacy, culture and language, and use that information to improve communication and self-management support.24 Clinicians and health care staff have an important role to play, but the responsibility for achieving real progress for patients facing challenges related to literacy, culture and language must extend to organizations that support them. We are still at an early stage of understanding the scope of literacy, cultural and language challenges patients face and developing remedies to address them. The relationship between health literacy and health disparities is only beginning to be explored.35<br /> <br /> Signs of Limited Health Literacy28<br /> <br /> Patients may ask to take paperwork home to complete.<br /> <br /> Patients may say that forgot their glasses at home.<br /> <br /> Patients may always bring a friend or familymember to appointments to complete paperwork.<br /> <br /> Health Literacy Resources<br /> <br /> Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit. AHRQ Publication No. 10-0046-EF, April 2010. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Available at: www.ahrq. gov/qual/literacy/index.html<br /> <br /> Toolkit for Making Written Material Clear and Effective. Centers for Medicare & :Medicaid Services. U.S. Health and Human Services. Available at: www.cms.gov/WrittenMaterialsToolkit/<br /> <br /> Health Literacy and Cultural Competency. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/ browse/hlitix.htm<br /> <br /> Office of disease prevention and health promotion. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health Communication, Health Literacy and e-Health. Available at: www.health.gov/communication/Default.asp<br /> <br /> The Council of State Governments: Health Literacy Tool Kit: A Comprehensive Resource for Policy-Makers. Available at: www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/ToolKit03HealthLiteracy.pdf<br /> <br /> HHS Quick Guide to Health Literacy. U.S. Department of Health And human services. Office of disease prevention and health Promotion. Available at: www.health.gov/communication/literacy/quickguide/about.htm<br /> <br /> U. S. department of health and human services, office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Health literacy online: A guide to writing and designing easy-to-use health Web sites. Washington, D.C.: Available at: www.health.gov/ healthliteracyonline/index.htm<br /> <br /> America’s Health Literacy: Why We Need Accessible Health Information. An Issue Brief from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: www.health.gov/ communication/literacy/issuebrief/<br /> <br /> Online Training Courses<br /> <br /> Health communication activities. Office of disease prevention and Health Promotion. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: www.health.gov/communication/ literacy/powerpoint/default.htm<br /> <br /> CDC: Health Literacy for Public Health Professionals. Available at: www2a.cdc.gov/TCEOnline/registration/detailpage.asp?res_id=2074<br /> <br /> New York New Jersey Public Health Training Center: Health Literacy & Public Health: Strategies for Addressing Low Health Literacy. Available at: www.nynj-phtc.org/pages/catalog/phlit02/<br /> <br /> Health Literacy, New Field New Opportunities. World Education National Network of Libraries Medicine New England Region (NNLM NE). Available at: www.healthliteracy.worlded.org/docs/tutorial/swf/flashcheck/main.htm<br /> <br /> Improving Health Literacy: Training Resources. University of Michigan Library. Available at: guides.lib.umich.edu/healthliteracyU.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of disease prevention and health promotion. Health literacy online: A guide to writing and designing easy-touse health Web sites. Washington, D.C.: Available at: www.Health.gov/healthliteracyonline/index.htm<br /> <br /> America’s Health Literacy: Why We Need Accessible Health Information. An Issue Brief from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: www.health.gov/communication/literacy/issuebrief/<br /> <br /> References<br /> <br /> 1. Nutbeam D. The evolving concept of health literacy. Soc Sci Med. 2008; 67(12): 2072-8.<br /> <br /> 2. Pleasant A, Kuruvilla S. A tale of two health literacies: public health and clinical approaches to health literacy. Health Promot Int. 2008; 23(2): 152-9.<br /> <br /> 3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010: understanding and improving health, chapter 11, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: U. S. government printing office; 2000.<br /> <br /> 4. Institute of Medicine. Health literacy: a prescription to end confusion. Washington,D. C.: National Academies Press; 2004.<br /> <br /> 5. Institute of Medicine. 2011. Innovations in health literacy research: workshop summary. Washington, D.C.: the National Academics Press.<br /> <br /> 6. Baker DW. The meaning and the measure of health literacy. J Gen Intern Med. 2006; 21(8): 878-83.<br /> <br /> 7.Kirsch IS, jungeblut a, Jenkins L, kolstad A. Adult literacy in America: a first look at the results of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). Washington,D. C.: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education; 1993.<br /> <br /> 8. National Center for Education Statistics. The health literacy of America’s adults: results from the 2003 National Assessment Of Adult Literacy. Washington,D. C.: U.S. Department of Education; 2006.<br /> <br /> 9. Hironaka LK, Paasche-Orlow MK. The implications of health literacy on patient-provider communication. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93:428-432.<br /> <br /> 10. Berkman ND, DeWalt DA, Pignone MP, et al. Literacy and health outcomes. Evidence report/technology assessment no. 87 (Prepared by RTI International– University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0016). AHRQ Publication No. 04-E007-2. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; January 2004.<br /> <br /> 11. Davis TC, Michielutte R, Askov EN et al. Practical assessment of adult literacy in health care. Health Educ Behav. 1998; 25(5): 613-24.<br /> <br /> 12. Ishikawa H, Yano E. Patient health literacy and participation in the healthcare process. Health Expectations. 2008; 11(2): 113–22.<br /> <br /> 13. Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, et al. The health care experience of patients with low literacy. Arch Fam Med. 1996; 5(6): 329-34.<br /> <br /> 14. Rothschild B, Bergstrom M. The California Health Literacy Initiative: a statewide response to an invisible problem. Literacy Harvest. Fall 2004; 11(1): 25-9.<br /> <br /> 15. Scott TL, Gazmararian JA, Williams MV, Baker DW. Health literacy and preventive health care use among medicare enrollees in a managed care organization. Med Care. 2002; 40(5): 395-404.<br /> <br /> 16. A report of a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services. The Invisible Barrier: Literacy and its relationship with oral health. J Pub Health Dent. 2005; 65(3): 174-82.<br /> <br /> 17. Davis TC, Crouch MA, Wills G, et al. The gap between patient reading comprehension and the readability of patient education materials. J Fam Pract.1990; 31: 533-8.<br /> <br /> 18. fry e. fry's readability graph: clarifications, validity, and extensions to level17. J Reading. 1977; 242-52.<br /> <br /> 19. Parker RM, Davis TC, Williams MV. Patients with limited health literacy. In: Bateman W (ed). Patient and family education in managed care. New York: Springer 1999: 63-72.<br /> <br /> 20. Davis TC, Long SW, Jackson RH, et al. Rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine: a shortened screening instrument. Fam Med 1993; 25:391-5.<br /> <br /> 21. Parker RM, Baker DW, Williams MV, et al. The test of functional health literacy in adults: a new instrument for measuring patients’ literacy skills. J Gen Intern Med. 1995; 10: 537-41.<br /> <br /> 22. Weiss BD, Mays MZ, Martz W, et al. Quick assessment of literacy in primary care: the newest vital sign. Ann Fam Med. 2005; 3: 514–22.<br /> <br /> 23. Paasche-Orlow MK, Wolf MS. The causal pathways linking health literacy to health outcomes. Am J Health Behav. 2007; 31(Suppl 1): S19-S26.<br /> <br /> 24. Andrulis DP, Brach C. Integrating literacy, culture, and language to improve health care quality for diverse populations. Am J Health Behav. 2007; 31(Suppl 1): S122-133.<br /> <br /> 25. Kleinman A, Eisenberg L, Good B. Culture, illness, and care: clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Ann Intern Med. 1978; 88(2): 251-8.<br /> <br /> 27. Weiss BD. Health literacy: a manual for clinicians. American Medical Association Foundation and American Medical Association; 2003.<br /> <br /> 28. Hasnain-Wynia R, Baker DW. Obtaining data on patient race, ethnicity, and primary language in health care organizations: current challenges and proposed solutions. Health Serv Res. 2006; 41(4Pt1): 1501-18.<br /> <br /> 29. U.S. department of health and human services. Office of disease prevention and Health Promotion (2010). National action plan to improve health literacy. Washington, D.C.: USDHHS.<br /> <br /> 30. Bass PF III, Wilson jf, Griffith CH, Barnett DR. residents' abilith to identifypatients with poor literacy skills. Acad Med. 2002; 77(10): 1039-41.<br /> <br /> 31. Lloyd LL, Ammary NJ, Epstein LG, et al. A transdisciplinary approach to improve health literacy and reduce disparities. Health Promot Pract. 2006; 7(3):331-5.<br /> <br /> 32. Castro CM, Wilson C, Schillinger D. Babel babble: physicians’ use of jargon with diabetes patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2004; 19(Suppl1): 124.<br /> <br /> 33. Paasche-Orlow MK, Schillinger D, Greene SM, etal. How health care systems can begin to address the challenge of limited literacy. J Gen Intern Med. 2006; 21(8): 884-7.<br /> <br /> 34. Providing language interpretations services in health care settings: examples from the field. National health law program, august 2002.<br /> <br /> 35. Saha S. Improving literacy as a means to reducing health disparities. J Gen Intern Med. 2006; 21(8): 8936-45.<br /> <br /> Su-yan L. Barrow, RDH, MA, MPH, is a senior lecturer and second-year coordinator, Bachelor Oral Health Program, Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, Australia, and program coordinator for the Minimal Intervention Dentistry Pilot Project for Dental Health Services Victoria. She was formerly the dental hygiene baccalaureate program coordinator at New York University College of Dentistry. Her teaching and research interests are in public health dentistry, health promotion and culturally competent health care with special interests in the social determinants of health. Su-yan has presented at national and international professional meetings, published articles/case studies and co-authored a text-book chapter on topics relevant to dental hygienists.
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